Attempting to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse for beginners can fail. Habitual culture in a closed ground can be capricious, not letting the fruit, or get sick and die. This is due to the lack of ultraviolet rays in the early planting periods, too high temperatures in the summer period, as well as the elementary mistake of a novice gardener when selecting seeds. Proper care of plants includes such an important event as the formation of the scourge.
Preparation for planting cucumbers in the greenhouse
If the greenhouse has already been used for growing plants, then preparation should be started in the fall. Processing needs to be made, considering a type of the previous culture. When growing melons, watermelons, zucchini and similar plants from the pumpkin family, it is best to completely remove the ground, thoroughly clean the equipment parts and process the greenhouse with antifungal preparations (smoke gates of the FAS type with gray, 7% solution of copper vitriol). This will prevent the disease of cucumber radical and gray rot, powdery mildew, etc.
Crops unrelated to cucumbers have almost no illnesses in common with them, therefore, the preparation of a greenhouse for winter can be done according to the usual rules:
- remove the remains of plants, shed ridges with a solution of copper sulphate;
- fumigate or spray the interior of the greenhouse with disinfectants and antifungal agents;
- if early spring planting is planned, prepare the ridges by removing all the soil from them.
Dredging should be done in order to facilitate the work on the formation of ridges for cucumbers, planted in early spring. In an unheated greenhouse, the soil will freeze, making it difficult to handle before the start of the season.
Spring preparation of beds in the greenhouse
So that gentle shoots do not freeze when outside temperature drops below 0°C, with early plantings (early April), even in closed ground, it is necessary to apply the technology of “warm ridges”. Its essence lies in the fact that in the box or pit, made on the site of the future ridge in the greenhouse, fresh manure is loaded. With a slight compaction, this substance begins to decompose with intense heat generation, which has been used by gardeners since time immemorial.
Manure must be leveled and slightly compacted.
It is not necessary to ram it hard because it prevents oxygen from entering the biofuel layer and makes reheating impossible.
If the lumps of manure are frozen, then after loading and compaction it is necessary to water the ridge with very hot water (boiling water) at the rate of 10 liters per 1-2 m². After that, close its surface with polyethylene or covering material and leave for 2-3 days. During this period, microorganisms that cause decay begin to flourish in manure. The bed becomes very hot to the touch, and above it may appear a slight haze of fumes.
The finished layer of biofuels should be filled with fertile soil. The thickness of this layer should be 25-30 cm. Arcs should be installed on top of the ridge directly in the greenhouse and the covering material or film should be stretched. After the soil temperature is close to +20°C, you can start sowing seeds or planting cucumber seedlings.
Selection and planting cucumbers in the greenhouse
Not all varieties of cucumbers are suitable for growing indoors. Some of them belong to the bee-pollinated, that is, the transfer of pollen should produce insects. These plants are intended only for the street, in the greenhouse the harvest from them cannot be obtained.
Modern hybrids for greenhouses usually have the appropriate mark "for closed ground." In the description of the variety you can read the incomprehensible word "parthenocarpic". This means that this variety is able to produce fruit without the participation of insects. It is these cucumbers that are needed for those who want to grow an early vegetable in a greenhouse.
Hybrids created for cultivation in the northern regions and in Siberia are very undemanding to lighting. Among them are the varieties “Buyan”, “Ant”, “Twiksi”, “Halley” and many others. Multiple varieties “True friends”, “Merry family” and similar ones, which give several ovaries in a node, may turn out to be more whimsical. Long-growing hybrids "Malachite", "Biryusa", "Stella" are very good for early planting.
Selected seeds before planting should be soaked for 20-30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (pink) for disinfection. After that, wrap wet in a wet cloth and leave for 12-24 hours in a warm place (+ 30 ... +35°WITH). During this time, many seeds will be proklyutsya, they will have a back. Such planting material and should be selected for planting.
Sowing cucumbers in the ridge
This stage is very responsible. At the time of sowing it is important not to break off the tips of the roots, so it must be done very carefully. A seed well can be made with a finger, its depth should not exceed 1.5 cm. The distance between the holes is 70-90 cm. If there are a lot of seeds, you can put 2 seeds in each hole. Pour the crops with a small amount of water (0.5 cups per well) and again cover the ridge with covering material.
After 3-5 days, the seeds will germinate and in the garden will be visible plants with two rounded cotyledon leaves. After the shoots rise above the soil surface, it is required to select and leave a stronger plant, and remove the excess. Young cucumbers carefully removed from the soil can be transplanted to another place if necessary. Caring for plants at this time consists in timely watering with warm water (as soon as the surface of the soil dries out).
Whip formation in the greenhouse
To effectively use the area allocated for planting cucumbers, they are usually tied up to the trellis and pinch the side shoots according to the scheme.
To do this, over each row of cucumbers you need to stretch a horizontal rope or wire. From it down to each bush to lower the thin twine and secure it at the base of the stem. Before reaching the lash length of 15-20 cm (4 true sheets), it is enough to wrap it 1 time around the twine.
At this level (zone zero), it is required to remove all ovaries and side shoots, leaving only the main stem. Pinching should be done immediately, as soon as the germ of the shoot became noticeable. It does not hurt the plant at all. Next, the formation of the whip to produce as follows:
- Near the 5th leaf (first zone), leave the germ of the shoot, allowing it to grow to 1-2 leaves and leave 1 ovary. Pinch the sprout and do the same up to 8 leaves on the main stem.
- In the next 3-4 nodes (second zone) you can leave 3 leaves and 2 ovaries each.
- After 11-12 leaves (third zone) and up to the trellis on the side shoots, 3-4 leaves and 3 cucumbers are left.
- When the main stem outgrows the height of the trellis, it must be bent over it, dropping down. Forming to make in one stalk.
As the stem grows back and new leaves form, the cucumber lash begins to lose the lower leaves. They become lethargic and turn yellow. Starting from the first tiers, they need to be removed as they die away, preventing rotting or drying out. Thus, in the lower levels, constant air exchange will be maintained, allowing to prevent fungal diseases. This is especially true in cool, rainy weather.
Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse is generally not particularly difficult, even for beginners. The main requirement of this culture is the abundance of moisture. Water cucumbers need daily, in the morning, warm water. They are very fond of watering the leaves, which increases the humidity of the air.
In hot weather, when the temperature can rise to 30°C, the greenhouse must be aired without the formation of drafts. Exceeding this mark makes the formation of fruits slow, and already formed ovaries may fall off. To reduce the temperature, you can shade a greenhouse in the hottest midday hours, constantly monitoring the thermometer. The best readings of the device are + 20 ... +25°WITH.