Planting onions in the fall in the winter in the Urals reduces spring work and ensures an early harvest of this crop. For planting onions in this region use frost-resistant varieties that can withstand severe winters.
Advantages and disadvantages of winter planting
Autumn planting onions has the following advantages:
- it is quite difficult to keep planting material until spring, especially small sizes;
- landing work in the spring is reduced;
- early harvest;
- the opportunity to use summer beds, freed from winter onions, under greens or early vegetables;
- winter crops weed less often, because the first shoots appear immediately after the snow, and the onions have time to grow to the active spread of weeds;
- receiving bulbs of the large size;
- until mid-May, watering of the soil in which moisture remains for a long time is not carried out.
Planting onions for the winter has its drawbacks:
- lower yield than in spring;
- there may be difficulties with the storage of the crop.
The decrease in yield of winter onions is due to the fact that some bulbs do not withstand cold conditions. When temperature drops, high humidity and winter frosts culture may die. Therefore, it is especially necessary to carefully select the varieties of onions for planting in the winter.
For planting in the Urals choose cold-resistant varieties of onions that can withstand a significant decrease in temperature. These include hybrid varieties, the bulbs of which are able to grow with short and medium daylight hours.
Seed material is divided into three groups:
- ovusculus with bulb sizes less than 1 cm;
- sets with sizes from 1 to 3 cm;
- selection with larger bulbs.
When planting a sample, you can get abundant greens in the spring, but you should not count on large bulbs. If you want to get onions, then choose sets. Ovusyuzhka gives medium-sized bulbs and feathers in the spring.
The following onion varieties are planted in the Urals in winter:
- Shakespeare. One of the most common varieties suitable for transportable planting. Its bulbs are large and round. Due to the dense husk variety is able to withstand low temperatures. Shakespeare's onions ripen in 75 days.
- Radar. Another good winter variety that has excellent taste properties. Due to the high germination rate, the Radar produces a large crop.
- Ellan A short daylight variety with round-shaped bulbs, golden husks and a sweetish aftertaste. Harvest removed in June.
- Sturon. Differs bulbs in the shape of an ellipse, which ripen in three months. You can store such onions for 8 months.
- Senshui. Early ripening variety resistant to low temperatures. The bulbs rarely form arrows and are stored for a long time after harvest.
- Red Baron. Medium early red variety of onions, unpretentious to the climatic conditions. It has a sharp taste and a long storage period.
Onions in the Urals are planted in September. Then the bulbs will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather, but the shoots will not have time to take root.
Disembarking takes place at least one month before the onset of cold weather. Even in the Southern Urals, snow may fall in early October, so it is better not to delay the landing work.
The time to plant onions before winter depends on the ambient temperature. If its value for a few days is +5 degrees, then it's time to start work. In any case, you need to focus on weather conditions.
Before the start of the landing is not recommended. In warm weather, bulbs will release arrows and will not be able to survive the cold. If you plant the onions later, without rooting it will freeze in winter.
Preparation of planting material
Before planting the bulb in the ground is processed, which allows to improve their germination. It is necessary to carry out necessary actions in 10 days prior to the beginning of landing works.
Processing is performed using one of the following solutions:
- Saline solution. You can use any type of salt: coarse or fine fraction. One liter of salt is enough for a liter of water. Bulbs immersed in the resulting solution for 5 minutes.
- Copper sulfate. This substance has disinfecting properties and prevents the spread of fungal diseases. On a liter of water is taken a tablespoon of copper sulfate. Onion holding time is 5 minutes.
- Potassium permanganate Based on it, a solution of a saturated pink color is prepared. It is allowed to process the material twice: first in saline, then in potassium permanganate.
In addition to these options, onions before planting process Phytosporin. This is a universal drug intended for the prevention of plant diseases. In a liter of water, a phytosporin teaspoon is dissolved, and then the bulbs are dipped in the solution for 15 minutes.Important! After processing, the bulbs should dry well.
If the onions are grown on a turnip, then it is not necessary to trim its neck. For planting onions for the winter is taken at 30% more material than during spring work. Sevok should be dry, without any damage or signs of damage.Tip! If the onion is planted on a feather, then take too large or small specimens, unsuitable for sowing in the spring.
Choosing a landing site
A good harvest of onions can be grown in sunny areas, but the culture tolerates shade well. The soil should be fertile, breathable, with a neutral reaction.Important! It is not recommended to plant winter onions in the lowlands where melted water accumulates in the spring.
The best predecessors for onions are cereals, cabbage, corn, cucumbers, tomatoes. After onions, you can plant almost any vegetable crop. Re-planting onions on the bed is made only after 3 years.
To avoid the spread of pests and diseases, onions are not planted after legumes, potatoes, celery and clover.Tip! On one bed you can plant several vegetable crops in rows: onions, carrots, radishes.
Next to the onion beds you can plant cabbage, beets, carrots, tomatoes and greens. But from the planting of peas and beans in the immediate vicinity of the onion is better to refuse.
Improving the quality and structure of the soil helps timely fertilization. However, you first need to carry out soil disinfection with copper sulfate solution. At 10 liters of water is taken a tablespoon of the drug. Consumption is 2 liters per square meter.
Then go to fertilizer. For one square meter of beds you need to prepare a nutrient mixture. It includes:
- humus - 3 kg;
- peat - 5 kg;
- potassium salt - 15 g;
- superphosphate - 20 g.
After harvesting the previous crop culture, it is necessary to dig up to a depth of 10 cm. Then a deeper digging with fertilizer is performed. When the onion planting dates are suitable, ashes are sprinkled on the bed (up to 10 g per square meter).
The beds are arranged up to a height of 15 cm. The optimum length of the bed is 1 m, and the width is 0.5 m. The preparation begins a couple of weeks before the beginning of the planting so that the soil can settle.
If the ground is heavy enough, the creation of the beds is a mandatory step. This provides warming up of the ground and improved air exchange. If the soil is light enough and warms up quickly, then you can make low beds or abandon their equipment.
Soil with high acidity is subjected to liming. Each square meter requires up to 0.7 kg of lime. After the procedure, onions are planted only two years later.
The procedure required for planting a winter onion varies depending on the purpose of its cultivation. If you need to get a large turnip, then you need to observe the following sequence of operations:
- On prepared beds, furrows 5 cm deep are made. A distance of 15 cm is left between them.
- Dry bulbs are placed in the grooves every 4 cm.
- Planting material is covered with peat and humus. Watering landings is not performed.
- After cooling, the bed is mulched using sawdust, humus, fallen leaves.
When planting a bow on a feather, the order of operations changes slightly:
- Similarly, in the ground make furrows 5 cm deep. 15 cm is left between the rows.
- The bulbs are positioned closely so that in spring the plant directs its forces towards the growth of greenery.
- Landings fall asleep peat and humus.
- As a mulch layer, sawdust, leaves of trees, and tops of harvested crops are used.
The family onion has small bulbs, but it is valued for its early maturity and high taste. Since this variety gives a small set, its planting is carried out with the help of seeds.
Planting family onions produced in August or September. The order of work is as follows:
- First, the seeds are placed for 3 days in water, which is changed three times a day.
- On the beds make furrows 1 cm deep. Between the rows leave up to 20 cm.
- The seeds are lowered into the furrows, after which the soil is compacted.
- By the onset of frost there is a rosette, which is left for the winter.
Mulching landings is a mandatory procedure that will help the culture to survive the harsh Ural winters. It is not recommended to use polyethylene film as mulch, since it does not provide air and moisture exchange.
Usually in winter in the Urals a lot of snow falls, which is an additional protection from freezing of the soil. To keep the snow cover longer on the garden bed, you can make another layer of spruce branches or branches.
Onion care after planting
In the autumn after planting and shelter beds do not require additional care. In the spring after the snow melts, the mulch layer is removed to ensure the warming of the soil.
When growing onions on a turnip in spring shoots thinned. Between bulbs leave about 5 cm.
In the process of growing culture perform additional thinning. To the plants do not interfere with each other, between them leave up to 15 cm, depending on the variety.Tip! Stimulate the growth of bulbs helps solution of ash.
In the spring it is better to abandon dressing, otherwise the active growth of greenery will begin, and the turnip will remain shallow.
Further care for onions is weeding, weeding and watering. The soil should not dry out, it is left moderately moist.Important! Due to loosening, air exchange in the soil is improved, which stimulates the development of bulbs.
When growing onions on a feather in the spring, its active feeding is conducted. For irrigation, fertilizer is prepared on the basis of mullein or preparations containing nitrogen. This procedure ensures the formation of green mass.Tip! To repel pests in the spring, you can plant marigolds or calendula between the rows with onions.
The use of agro-weaves helps to protect the seedlings from spring frosts. This material transmits the sun's rays and oxygen, while maintaining heat.
The process of planting onions involves several stages, which include the processing of the bulbs, the arrangement of the beds and the application of fertilizers. Time limits for carrying out the work are complied with so that the bulbs have time to adapt and prepare for winter.
After planting the onions do not require care, it is enough to apply a mulch layer during a cold snap. In the spring, they take it off and take care of the crop in the usual way: water, loosen the soil and eliminate weeds.