Red currant, both black and white, is one of the most useful berries grown by gardeners in their gardens. The berries of these shrubs contain a lot of trace elements beneficial to human health. The leaves of the plant are used for salting and pickling vegetables, for making tasty and fragrant tea, made from compotes, jams and preserves. It is insulting to tears, if the leaves and the whole plant are sick or suffer from the attack of pests. One of such harmful insects on red currants is gallic aphid. We decided to tell about our harmful effects and how to deal with them in more detail in our article.
What is redcurrant aphid
According to the biological definition, galls on plants are ugly swellings on leaves and shoots, painted in different colors depending on the type of pathogen or pest. They are in the form of ink nuts (cecidia). On the leaves of red currant are formed lilac-red spots and ugly formations (see photo), and the reason for this is a microscopic insect - red-eye aphid. It is difficult to see it on the back of the leaves, but it can cause great harm, even to the death of the plant.
The size of an adult female of red currant aphids reaches 2-3 mm, they are wingless or winged, depending on the regeneration. During the season, both flying and creeping females can lay several clutches of eggs (black, oblong, microscopic in size), from which green caterpillars emerge. They quickly turn into adult insects and are ready for their own reproduction. One female aphid can produce about 10 generations of its own kind during the summer. These indicators can be used to judge the number of pests that attack red currant bushes, causing red spots and blisters on the leaves, different in size.
The leaves of red currant, especially young shoots, are exposed to great danger from the attack of a huge number of voracious pests that feed on the sap of the plant, piercing their delicate and soft leaf tissues with special proboscis.
Aphid, settled on the leaves of red currant, attracts ants who love to eat the paddy, released by aphids. Pad is a sweetish and sticky liquid rich in proteins and carbohydrates. The ants, protecting the colonies of aphids on the currants, scare away the ladybirds, preventing them from destroying them.
Flying from one bush to another, the aphid transports pathogens of fungal, bacterial and viral infections to healthy currant bushes, infecting them and putting them in mortal danger. Redcurrant (like white) is more vulnerable than blackcurrant. It is less resistant to diseases and more often suffers and dies if it does not receive timely treatment.
Diseases of the red currant
In spring and early summer, berryberry bushes are not only attacked by pests, with the onset of flying and insect movement, young shoots and soft, soft leaves of white, black and red currants can also manifest symptoms of various diseases that are transmitted by arthropods and winged "aggressors".
Symptoms and treatment
Symptoms of the disease: small red spots appear on the leaves, which grow, merge into a large brown and shapeless spot, leaf petioles become thinner, darker, leaves dry out and fall prematurely.
Causes: high humidity plus high air temperature (during frequent rains), insect vectors, windy weather, carrying spores from a diseased plant to healthy bushes.
Treatment and prevention: in the fall - to process currant bushes with Bordeaux mixture (1% solution), it is necessary to dispose of all the infected parts of the plant, and fallen leaves to burn. In the spring, spray the plant with copper sulphate (1 percent solution), dig up the soil near the bush, process it with the same solution. Before flowering - you can use chemicals: epin, topsin-M, zircon. During fruiting, only biological products are used for processing: phytospores, gamair and others.
Disease: goblet rust
Symptoms of the disease: currant leaves with this fungal disease are covered with red-brown spots, soft growths in the form of small pads that can crack and release millions of microscopic spores appear on the back side of the lamina, infecting all the plants around.
Causes: the presence of weed (sedge) in the garden plot, on which fungi often find the main habitat. In June or July, the plantations of the fungus on the weeds reach their maximum sizes; the pads containing spores burst, increasing the area of infection under the influence of the wind in the region from 25 to 300 meters.
Disease treatment and prevention: in the fall, remove all the fungus-affected branches, collect fallen leaves and burn them, do not use them in compost heaps. To process currant bushes in autumn, in early spring, before flowering with special fungicides (see above), for the whole season there should be at least three sprays.Attention! When treating the garden with chemicals, observe the rules of your own protection, use glasses, hats and special clothes. It is impossible to spray such plants with plants during their flowering and fruiting.
Disease: spherotek (powdery mildew)
Symptoms of the disease: a gray-white bloom like flour appears on the fruits and leaves of the red currant, then the leaves twist and dry, the still unripe berries fall, the young growth of the plant stops.
Causes: infected weeds, ingestion of a fungus, the spread of spores by gusts of wind, excessive humidity of the air during frequent rains, when a favorable environment for the reproduction of fungal infections is created.
Prevention and treatment of the disease: process the plant at least 3-4 times per season with fungicides, at early stages we recommend manually cutting off the affected leaves and berries, from folk remedies the soda solution is popular for such treatments (dissolve 50 g of baking soda or soda ash with 10 liters of water) .
Disease: red currant septoriosis
Symptoms of the disease: there are two types of septoria - rusty, when bright orange nodules appear on the leaves of red currant, and white, in this case the spots are round, gray-white with brown edging.
Causes: thickened planting bushes, the presence of weeds, infection through insects or in the wind.
Prevention and treatment: in this case, frequent treatment of plants with fungicides and bacterial preparations also rescues, a huge selection of which is offered in specialized stores. Proceed strictly according to the instructions attached to the packaging of each product, do not exceed the nominal concentration of the substance, preparing from them the necessary solution for treating red currant bushes.
Disease: Reversion (Terry)
Disease symptoms: lack of fruits for 3-5 years, leaf plate mutation (three-lobed leaves instead of the usual five), excessive growth of young shoots that thicken the bushes.
Causes: infection from diseased plants.
Treatment: drugs for the treatment and prevention of this disease does not yet exist. The only way to get rid of it and measure to protect other planting - complete uprooting and burning diseased shrubs. Unfortunately, this disease has been little studied, preparations and ways of dealing with it have not yet been invented, but in order to reassure gardeners, we note that it is extremely rare. In suburban settlements and in the backyards, where the density of planting red currants is small, it almost never occurs. The reversion flares up in the territories of agrofirms, where the technology of growing currants is violated and the increased frequency of planting bushes is allowed.Tip! It is necessary when buying seedlings to be attentive to the reputation of the seller, not to buy plants in random places or from little-known producers. Many of them do not guarantee that they sell healthy seedlings grown according to the correct technology, and most importantly, they are not infected with dangerous diseases.
If you love your garden and protect every plant from pests and diseases, then your work for their benefit will pay off "a hundredfold." Each bush and tree will thank you with a bountiful harvest, will delight you with its healthy appearance, and their fruits will help you to prepare tasty juices, jams, preserves, which your family will enjoy all year round.