Every year the blackberry is becoming an increasingly frequent guest in home gardens and kitchen gardens. Depending on the variety, various bushes may have a greater or lesser ability to resist various pests and parasites. As a rule, those blackberry varieties, in the genotype of which there are no raspberry genes, are little damaged by pests and diseases - they have an increased immunity. But then raspberry-blackberry hybrids are able to pick up the whole range of diseases and parasites that are characteristic of raspberries. Detailed information about blackberry diseases is presented in another article, and here you can get a closer look at those pests that can cause damage to the blackberry, and find out how you can win in the fight against them.
Classification of insects damaging shrubs
Among the infinite variety of insect pests, it is customary to divide them into groups according to which parts of the blackberry they damage the most. Of course, this classification is somewhat arbitrary, since some pests, such as the crimson aphid or the raspberry beetle, can cause damage to all the organs of the blackberry. Nevertheless, many pests most often specialize in some specific parts of plants and, therefore, they are easier to identify and neutralize.
- Pests that live mainly in the ground, gnawing the roots and thereby causing the blackberry bushes to wilt, and sometimes their total destruction.
- Those pests that damage the leaves, worsen the general condition of plants, reduce their immunity and, accordingly, reduce blackberry yield.
- Among the pests living in the stems of blackberry, a lot of tiny, almost indistinguishable to the eye. But thanks to their activities, branches and stems begin to wither and suddenly break off. As a result, the harvest may be partially or completely killed, and the blackberry plantation heavily infected by them will have to be completely updated.
- Finally, a variety of pests that eat blackberry flowers and berries, spoil their appearance and taste, do not allow plants to fully develop and because of them often have to destroy individual shoots or even entire shrubs.
Blackberry pests affecting the root system and how to deal with them
Insect pests living in the soil, and their larvae make numerous underground passages, gnawing in their path all the roots of plants. Especially tasty for them are young thin blackberry roots and the bases of fresh young shoots that emerge from the soil in early spring.
May Khrushchev (May beetle larva)
May beetle in itself does not carry anything good for fruit bushes, in particular, for blackberries, since it can feed on its leaves, flowers and ovaries. But its larvae are much more harmful, because they eat up the most tender parts of the roots and young stems and, with their large numbers, are capable of completely destroying blackberry bushes.
The larvae have a rather long lifespan, about 4 years, then they turn into a pupa, and after 1.5 months adult beetles appear, and all this time they cause irreparable damage to blackberry landings. Both adult beetles and their larvae of different ages winter in the soil. Departure to the surface of adult insects begins around the end of April - early May, during the flowering period of most fruit trees and shrubs. At the end of flowering, female pests lay eggs in the ground at a depth of about 20-40 cm, of which the larvae soon appear.
Based on knowledge of the life cycle of the May Khrushcha, the following protective measures can be carried out:
- Before laying a blackberry plantation in order to prevent soak the root system of the bushes in 0, 65% solution Aktar for half an hour. Aktara is a systemic insecticide and all blackberry parts eaten by the crusty will be poisonous to the pest for 30 days (when spraying the plants with the preparation) and up to 2 months (when spilling the soil).
- For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is advisable to plant the areas on which you plan to plant blackberries a year before plantings with green manure: rape, clover, mustard or alfalfa. Mustard excretions are capable of scaring off crunches for a long time, so it is advantageous to plant it also in the blackberry row spacing.
- It is convenient to collect adult beetles manually in the morning when they are in some daze. To do this, under the shrubs and trees spread the film and shake off the pests on it, and then collected and destroyed in a lime mortar.
- If you have a small number of blackberry bushes, then it is best to carefully dig up each bush in cloudy weather and brush it off with film on the film, manually selecting all the larvae. Before planting blackberry roots in the same place, additionally process a clay mash with the addition of 100 g of tobacco dust on a bucket of liquid.
- From folk remedies it is effective to use iodine solution (25 drops per 8-10 liters of water) against the Maybug, which the blackberry bushes are watered under the root in April-May.
- Of the chemical preparations can be applied in early spring Konfidor and Antikhrushch, the solutions of which shed the ground around the blackberry and process the plants themselves.
- Keep in mind that adult beetles love to be treated to birds: starlings, rooks, as well as bats. And the larvae of the pest are tasty prey for shrews, moles and even foxes.
This is a large insect, up to 5-6 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, with four wings, powerful jaws, its front legs digging for themselves holes and passages. It feeds mainly on young roots and shoots, but on the way it can gnaw through any powerful roots of blackberry, thus condemning the bush to death. Larvae laid by females during the summer turn into adult insects only the next year.
If you notice wilted shoots and even whole blackberry bushes, it is recommended to carefully examine the soil under the plants in search of holes, up to 3 cm in diameter, which can be the entrance to the underground dwelling of the bear. When a pest is detected, you can first thoroughly loosen the soil around the blackberry bushes, and then try to apply one of the well-established popular methods of struggle:
- Pour into a hole a bucket of water with a handful of detergent dissolved in it. This will force Medvedka to come to the surface, after which she will be destroyed. Caught medvedok gladly eat chickens, ducks and other domestic birds.
- When planting blackberries, fill eggshells, dried marigolds, and chrysanthemums into the pits.
- Sprinkle sand moistened with kerosene near the bushes.
- Blackberry bushes should be poured under the root with a solution of ammonia in the proportion of 3 tablespoons per bucket of water.
- Install a wind turbine on a metal wire that creates vibration in the soil and frightens off pests.
- Traps are set up in the form of cans, with smeared with honey edges, dug into the ground.
- In the fall, small holes are dug and filled with a mixture of straw and manure. Medvedka settles in them for the winter, and after the onset of frost the straw with manure is pulled out and distributed over the surface - the pests die.
- In early spring poisoned baits from bread and match heads are placed in the holes.
If you want to quickly get rid of the pest, then you can use special chemicals - Medvetoks, Medvetsid and Bowerin, which are mixed with soil near blackberry bushes.
What insects harm blackberry leaves
Blackberry leaves are very attractive not only for various types of aphids, ticks, but also for caterpillars, flea beetles.
Aphid is an unpleasant variety of pests that attacks primarily blackberries with crimson genes (varieties of Taberri, Texas, Thornless Loganberry). These insects are very small, no more than 3 mm in length. Those that live on blackberries, characterized by a light yellow color.
Eggs overwinter at the ends of shoots, near the buds and with the onset of spring, of which wingless insects begin to appear first, which live in small groups or singly on the lower side of the leaves. At the beginning of leaf aphid activity, blackberry leaves are only slightly curved and there is no noticeable damage. But over the summer period there is a massive reproduction of pests, several generations of aphids give way, as a result of which there can even be a massive leaf fall at the height of summer. Blackberry crops are reduced, and the frost resistance of the shoots is reduced to zero. But the main danger of aphids is that they suffer from practically incurable viral diseases.
True, choosing what to spray blackberries from pests that can destroy all the landing, quite easily. In early spring, relatively harmless biological agents can be used for treatment against raspberry leaf aphid: Agravertin, Actofit, Fitoverm. Spraying repeat 2-3 times in 5-7 days.
Perfectly cope with aphids and powerful systemic insecticides, such as Confidor, Mospilan. Spraying these funds should be carried out before the flowering of blackberries.
If you notice a pest too late, after blooming of the kidneys and in the summer period, spraying of tobacco extract can help: in 10 liters of water insist 2 days 200 g of tobacco dust. Infusion can be used throughout the day. After 8-10 days, the treatment of the blackberry is repeated.
This is just one of the varieties of the numerous family of aphids, differing in relatively larger size and yellowish-greenish color with a dark ornament on the body. The rest of the way of life and the degree of harmfulness are very reminiscent of raspberry leaf aphid, therefore, the methods of pest control are the same.
Ticks belong to small spiders, they can not be distinguished with the naked eye. Their presence gives the appearance of whitish and speckled spots on the leaves of blackberry. They live on the underside of the leaves and sometimes impersonate the formation of a small cobweb between the leaves and stems. Most of all they harm young saplings and blackberry sprouts. Leaves quickly turn yellow, dry up and fall off. Adult bushes suffer from ticks much less often. Particularly intense pest multiplies in hot and dry conditions, so it is most often found in greenhouses and in the southern regions.
Affected blackberry plants stop growing, reduce yield, and young seedlings may even die.
The treatment of blackberry seedlings by Fitoverm or Akarin will help save the situation; from folk methods of dealing with ticks, an infusion of onion or garlic peel is used (400-500 g per 10 l of water). In severe cases, spraying blackberries with Neoron or Aktellik is used, but only after the berries are harvested.
Microscopic in size arachnid reddish shade in spring out of the scales of the kidneys, where they hibernate, and settle below the leaves of the blackberry. As a result of their activity, the leaves become bent, become corrugated, discolor. The spots somewhat resemble a viral mosaic, so damage from a pest is often confused with this disease.
In the warm season, to combat the raspberry mites, they use 1% sulfur solution for spraying blackberries, as well as Akarin and Fitoverm.
Raspberry hairy mite
The pest has a worm-like whitish color and two pairs of legs. Otherwise, it is very similar to raspberry mite, so the methods of dealing with it are exactly the same.
Raspberry leaf sawfly
In this pest, which looks like a fly, the larvae, similar to caterpillars, cause the greatest harm to the blackberry, so they are often called caterpillars. If they are not stopped, they can destroy more than half of the leaves on the blackberry bushes.
Larvae hibernate on the soil surface among the fallen leaves in spider cocoons. Early in the spring they pupate, and in the second half of May adult sawflies fly out, which begin to lay light-colored eggs from the underside of the blackberry leaves near the veins or along the edges. The larvae appear literally in 6-8 days and begin to intensively eat away the leaves of blackberry, starting from the lower tier. Pests prefer mature leaves, do not feed on young ones, so gradually by the end of summer, they move closer to the top of the bushes to blackberries, leaving behind a perforated or completely gnawed leaves.
As a result, the harvest of blackberries is reduced already this season, and the plants do not have time to form full-fledged buds for the harvest next year.
As measures to combat sawfly, it is necessary to loosen the ground under blackberry bushes and mulch it with a layer of 6 cm or more. From a small number of bushes lobsters are harvested by hand. Also use blackberry spray with an infusion of tobacco, garlic, wormwood, or a solution of carbolic soap (100 g per 15 liters of water).
Often, in hot and dry weather, common cruciferous flea attacks blackberry leaves and holes them. In general, the damage from the activities of this pest is negligible. As protection measures, leaves are powdered with a mixture of wood ash and tobacco dust.
The caterpillars of many butterflies can also gnaw blackberry leaves, leaving only skeletons from them. Especially love the blackberry caterpillars butterfly moth and raspberry glass. With a small lesion, it is most convenient to manually collect the pests and feed them to poultry. If you missed the moment, you can use the spraying of the biological product Lepidotsid. Chemicals against leaf-eating pests (Karate, Fufanon, Tiovit-Jet) can be used strictly at the very beginning of the blackberry budding, not later than 5 days before the start of flowering.
Blackberry Shoot Pest Control Techniques
Pests of escapes on blackberries can be found with careful and regular inspection of the bushes. The usual measure to deal with them is cutting and burning the affected shoots, but sometimes it is necessary to use chemical means of protection.
Raspberry fly stem
If you find faded tops of young shoots on a blackberry, then a raspberry fly has probably worked here. This is a very small gray fly with a length of no more than 5 mm. Forms only one generation per year. The eggs are white, the larvae are bright. Lays eggs at the base of the leaves on the tops of the shoots. The emerged larvae penetrate inside the shoot and make a circular course in it - the upper part of the shoot withers.
And the larvae gradually descend through the stem to the base, trying to get into the soil for pupation and wintering. On a blackberry, lateral shoots and their small branches are often damaged, so the damage is small. Nevertheless, the affected shoots must be removed and burned, and the soil around the raspberries must be mulched so that the pest cannot fly and lay eggs at the end of spring.
Crimson Shoot Aphid
Crimson shoot aphid is very similar to its cousin - leaf aphid, which was described above. It is only settled by large colonies, covering young buds from the beginning of spring and sucking the juices from them. Then the pest invades the shoots, leaf stalks and finally reaches the buds and inflorescences. In the summer, the pest has the opportunity to live - that is, females give birth immediately to the larvae, bypassing the egg stage. This allows you to speed up the process of reproduction of insects several times.
In order not to miss the moment of intensive reproduction of the shoot aphid, it is necessary to inspect the tips of the young shoots of the blackberry regularly. At the first signs of the presence of pests, shoots are cut and burned. And the remaining stems are sprayed with Fitoverm or Actophyte.
Raspberry stem gallitsa
Harm to the blackberry is delivered by the larvae of this small, flying, orange-yellow insect. It is easy to identify the pest by the presence of bulges on the shoots, in the form of growths - galls. It is in them that the larvae of the stem gall midges inhabit and feed. In the same place they winter. In the spring, pupae appear, and when the weather is warm (+ 10 ° + 13 ° C), adult gall midges appear from them. The shoot is usually cracked in the places where the larvae are concentrated and the total number of damaged shoots can reach up to 40-50%.
Fighting a pest is cutting and burning all shoots with growths in the fall or early spring.
Crimson shoots gallitsa (raspberry mosquito)
An even more dangerous representative of gall midges is, since in the places of its penetration no pronounced gall growths are formed, but they can be revealed by the way brown spots are first formed on the shoot, and then this place becomes black. The orange-red larvae, unlike the stem gall midges, overwinter in the upper soil layer (2-4 cm) at the base of the blackberry stalks.
Therefore, among the control measures it is also important in the fall to loosen the soil between the blackberry bushes, and to mulch in the spring to prevent the emergence of adult insects.
Sometimes, in case of severe damage, treatment in early spring before flowering with chemical systemic drugs, such as Konfidor or Aktar, is used.
Another blackberry pest, in the places where the larvae live, galls are formed on the shoots. Gauls have an elongated shape. Ветки ежевики, на которых образуются галлы, обречены на гибель, поэтому большого урожая от поврежденных кустов ждать не приходится.
В галлах же происходит зимовка личинок. Поэтому для уничтожения вредителя необходимо лишь осенью найти, вырезать и сжечь все побеги ежевики с галлами.
Вредители, наносящие вред бутонам, цветкам, почкам и ягодам ежевики
These pests not only spoil the appearance of the berries, but also degrade their taste and yield characteristics.
The pest is a small gray-black beetle up to 3 mm long with a proboscis. In the spring, females damage blackberry buds by laying eggs in them. And in July, the young beetles that emerged from the larvae actively feed on the leaves of the blackberry, before going for the winter to the soil.
The best way to cope with the weevil is spraying blackberry bushes in the period of budding with infusion of mustard powder with an interval of 5-7 days. To do this, in a bucket of warm water dissolve 100 g of mustard and insist 12 hours. Loosening the soil around the bushes in autumn and early spring also helps to reduce the number of pests.
Raspberry kidney mole
A small-sized pest whose caterpillars eat young blackberry buds, adult butterflies feed on buds and nectaries in flowers, and the larvae hatch in fruits and devour the drupes, which makes them stop developing.
Pest activity at a minimum leads to a decrease in yield, but can also lead to the destruction of blackberry bushes. From folk remedies to combat it, tincture of wormwood is effective (2 kg of fresh grass per 10 liters of water), which is treated with blackberry bushes 3-4 times with an interval of 8-10 days during budding and flowering.
Among other methods of struggle, they cut and burn all old shoots and leaves, loosen and mulch the earth.
The beetle is a small black color with white specks and yellow-gray hairs. The pest is most active in warm sunny weather from 10 to 16 o'clock in the afternoon. It eats pistils from blackberry flowers, but the damage from it is negligible. The best way to protect is manual collection.
In regions where the number of bronzovka greatly increased, you can use the insecticide Calypso.
This pest is more characteristic of raspberries, rarely occurs on a blackberry. It can damage both blackberry leaves and stalks, but lays eggs in inflorescences and in fresh ovaries. It has the appearance of a flying beetle, no larger than 4 mm, grayish-brown color with rusty hair.
To fight it, they dig up the ground around bushes in the fall and spring, and then powder it with a mixture of tobacco dust and wood ash.
In early spring, it is effective to shed the ground with the Confidor solution, and at the first appearance of blackberry buds, spray it with the second time.
The pest refers to arachnids and can spread by the wind and in the infected planting material. Blackberry mites are very small, they hibernate inside the blackberry buds and with the onset of warm weather they begin to feed intensively on its inflorescences and berries. They inward the special substances that change the composition of the berries, because of what worsens their taste, the berries can not darken when ripe.
To counteract pests, it is necessary to spray blackberry bushes before bud breaks with a biological preparation Akarin or Apollo. It is desirable to repeat the treatment after 8-10 days.
A set of measures that protect the blackberry from the onslaught of pests
Often gardeners, having discovered unknown larvae, caterpillars or damaged leaves and fruits, do not know what to grab, where to run, than to treat the blackberry from pests that can destroy the fruits of their labors.
It must be understood that the protection of the garden begins with the laying of it with uninjured planting material. Therefore, the day before planting the root system of all seedlings, it is desirable to soak in the Aktara solution or infusion of tobacco dust for several hours.
It is advisable to plant blackberries in areas where the siderats (mustard, clover) were planted a year before to improve the soil and reduce the number of its harmful inhabitants.
Since most pests overwinter either in the soil or on plants, it is very effective to sprinkle blackberry bushes with hot water (60 ° -70 ° C) in the early spring period, when the buds have not woken up yet. If the plants are then covered with plastic wrap for a couple of hours, then this preventive method can be very effective. It should only be understood that the conditions are different everywhere and not for all sorts of blackberry way will be harmless, so the first time you should test on several shoots in different parts of the bramble.
During the whole warm season, it is necessary to remove dried and damaged blackberry leaves and shoots, destroying them, constantly loosening and mulching the soil. You should also not thicken the landing of blackberry and do not forget to regularly feed and water it.
Immediately after the end of fruiting, it is necessary to completely cut out the old shoots and burn them.
Blackberries, especially its varieties, in which there are no raspberry genes, still remain relatively resistant to the invasion of various pests. Nevertheless, gardeners can not relax. It is necessary to know the enemies in the face and apply preventive methods of protection, and when detecting pests, act as quickly as possible, using, above all, harmless folk remedies.